Thursday, February 28, 2019
To hazard out as to what extent loving clear up non b arly shapes attitudes, values and beliefs, but similarly has a signifi poopt force on demeanor chances, I will begin by defining friendly social stratification, social class and conduct chances. Sociological theories will also be used to help understand federation. Education and employment impact on companionship will also be discussed using journal articles obtained as a guide. To understand social stratification, it is pregnant to sterilise a character between social inequality, which refers to the existence of socially created inequalities whereas social stratification is a particular form of inequality.It refers to the presence of distinct social assemblys which are be one above the another(prenominal)wise in call of factors much(prenominal) as prestige and wealth. Using the utilitarianist theory, we lavatory understand stratification better as this theory views connection as a system that is set of u nite parts which together form a whole. Talcott Parsons (1902- 79). Davis and moore (1945), claimed that all societies have whatever form of social stratification. George Peter Murdock (1949) maintained that the family exists in every cognise human society.All these honorable deal pay heedm to suggest that individual families and social stratification meet needs that are common to all societies. I agree with the functionalism theory as it is small conferences such as families that make up society as a whole. Each family essay to defy and do better than others in the process bettering the society. For a society to survive, functional prerequisites of society are required as Marion J. Levy (1952) argued that a society would cease to exist if its members were absorbed into another society or entangled in a war of all against all. Marion J.Levy s argument rear be challenged. With the shortage of housing, families getting absorbed into another society would be replaced by fam ilies searching for accommodation. On the other hand, ethnomethodologists follow Alfred Schutz (1932) in believing there is no real social order as other sociological perspectives assume. accessible biography appears orderly to members of society precisely because members actively engage in making scence of social life. According to Zimmerman and Wieder (1971), society go about the task of seeing, describing and explaining order in the world in which they live.Social class Savage et al. described social class as social collectivises rooted in particular types of exploitative relationships. These collectivises are groups of plurality who make do levels of income, lifestyles, cultures and political orientations. An example of this could be a group of footballers, would share the akin level of income, with similar lifestyles will act or be seen or perceived differently to golf players who are equally overflowing but may have a different lifestyle to footballers. This set up be linked to Marxist theory.Karl Marx (1818- 83) regarded people as both the producers and the products of society. hatful are regarded as producers as they make society and themselves by their have got actions. People are regarded as products of society in that they are shape by the social relationships and systems of thought they create. To support Karl Marx s comment on people being a product of society, a real life example could be given where a student joins university for the first time. University can be regarded as a society with different individuals, all trying to achieve the same thing.It is up to the new student to recognise the group he joins and this will affect the student s life at university if in a bad group or good group thereby making the student a product of that society. Life chances- Gerth and mills, (1954) utter that a soul s position in a stratification system may have important effects on many(prenominal) areas of life. It may enhance or reduce lif e chances that is their chances of obtaining those things that are delectable and avoiding those things defined as undesirable in their society. (Max Weber).To help determine whether in fact social class not lonesome(prenominal) shapes attitudes, values and beliefs, it is important to categorize social class. Social class refers to the persistent social inequalities. devil distinct types of social inequality have been identified by researchers operative with twain different sociological theories. One theory is derived from the work of Karl Marx the other from the writings by Max Weber, which are somewhat critical of Marx s work. Marxian approach suggests that social class was defined by give birthership of the direction of production bourgeoisie who exploit the workers who do not receive the convey of production (proletariat).Source the Canadian encyclopedia. Marxian approach can be challenged as it does not refer to occupation or levels of income. Marxian approach regarded everyone that did not own land as proletariat. This would mean that sr. managerial administrative and manual of arms working class would be regarded as being in the same class (proletetariat). There is a vast difference between the income and benefits of senior managers compared to manual workers therefore it wouldn t be right to put the two in the same class. Ethnic and gender factors are mportant in differentiating people and in relating them to the general division of fag and inequalities of opportunity and conditions which are associated with it. other way of categorizing class is by referring to upper class, consisting of property owners (bourgeoisie), middle class consisting of senior managers, middle managers and supervisory and service worker class and at long last the working class or lower class consisting of manual workers. A variety of studies have shown that non-manual workers enjoy advantages over manual workers in terms of their life chances.The office for natio nal statistics (ONS), has compiled a range of statistical state on inequalities between classes in England and Wales. (Focus on social inequalities 2004). In 2002, 77% of year 11 children with parents in higher professional occupations obtained five or more GCSE S at grade C or above, compared to 32% of those with parents in routine occupations. In my opinion, the above statistics suggest that parents can also act as role models to their children.An example is that if a parent is chief operating officer of an organization, he/she will encourage their children to do well at initiate and reach the same level or above the parent position. except for being CEO, this parent has set a design level for his/her children which is come in hard to archive but with the parent s income, the child can go to private school and increase life chances. On the other hand, it would be hard for a parent in manual labour to encourage their child to reach CEO position. This child may see this as an impossible task and will settle for the same manufactory job or aspire to be the factory supervior.This child s parent income could not be enough to better life chance. Social class does really shape attitudes, values and beliefs and this can be support by the common American saying The American dream . The American dream can be explained as a belief and the license that allows all citizens and residents to achieve their life chances in the USA. Today, in America it broadly refers to the idea that one s prosperity depends upon one s own abilities and hard work. ( wikipedia encyclopedia).This is a message passed on to all people in America but in my opinion, people from the lower class are likely to believe in the American dream as some form of comfort or assurance that things could get better in future. The journal article below is by Andrew Billen. The Times. London uk. Aug 20, 2007. Pg 19(Full article can be found on Appendix 1) Page 2 In last night s season opener, the fascistically titled the will to winRobert Winston fret at age 7 their fates may already be sealed. Certainly, by the programme s end it looked if the Jesuits knew what they were talking about.As little William sprinted frontward of the pack to the finishing line of his private school s junkie and spoon race, his ambitious mother was convinced he was already the person he would become. I m definitely going to win, he had confidently predicted half an hour earlier. And I m going to come second, chipped in his friend, the sort of friend William would need. Down at the other end of Britain, where life chances are more ragged, was James, whose ambition in life had hardened up he wanted to be a robber.His answer to a dumbed-down IQ test question, what do you do if you find a wallet on the floor? was take it home . Despite this, James s IQ was found to be just a touch below average. If only he had been clever enough to choose different parents. His father had scampered whe n he was an infant, leaving his mother Carol, struggling. This article points out that a child innate(p) in an upper class family will have better life chances as they will be able to attend very good schools or private schools thereby bettering their chances of succeeding.Page 2 Aspects of life such as income play an important part in achieving life chances as pointed out by the article below taken from Allister Heath. Sunday seam London (UK) Jun 26. 2005 pg 1. The writer noted that the UK is plagued with low social mobility and that this is partly out-of-pocket to the strong and increasing relationship between family income and educational attainment. The proportion of children from the poorest 5th of families born during the early 1980s obtaining a degree has increased from 6% to 9%, while the graduation rate for the richest fifth has risen from 20% to 47%. Full article can be found on Appendix 2) Social class still exists at present as most of what we do on a daily basis is obdurate by how we perceive or wish to perceive ourselves. Eg, the cars we choose to buy, friends we choose etc. Jonathan Moore, UK BBC Publication, 18/12/2007 I fully agree that social class does in fact have a significant impact on life chances. The functionalist theory did describe society as a system that is set of interconnected parts which together form a whole. This brings out the fact that society is divided into different classes and that inequalities do exist.William, in the journal article was positive he would win because of his up brining from his parents not to accept second best. His parents, through their jobs have set a target for William which will affect his life chances. REFERENCES Martin Holborn and microphone Haralambos, sociology themes and perspectives, seventh edition, 2007. Tony J. Watson, sociology ,work and industry, third edition, 1995. Mike Noon and Paul Blyton, the realities of work, second edition, 2002. Keith Grint, the sociology of work, third editi on, 2005. The times. London(uk) Aug 20, 2007 pg 19. Sunday Business. London(uk) Jun 26,2005 pg 1.
As a prerequisite to writing my Individual paper for Orientation to particular(a) Child class, I interviewed Latoya Pearson, who is a Special nurture teacher at Homewood High School here in Homewood, Alabama. Mrs. Pearson attended The University of Alabama where she majored in Psychology and minored in Biology. Mrs. Pearson began working at Homewood High School in 2006 with an emergency teachers certification in Special command. Mrs. Pearson after received a Masters in Special didacticsal activity in 2008 from The University of Montev altogethero. Mrs. Pearson started the interview by asking what field of didactics I was move and why I chose this field.I pardoned to Mrs. Pearson that I am pursuing a Masters in Special teaching method from The University of Phoenix. I told Mrs. Pearson that I chose this field beca go for I wanted to pursue a life where I would tolerate the largest impact on someones life. I alike mentioned that I get under ones skin always been awargon of kids being illegal and placed into excess statement classes who may not necessary acquire the service. I know that I have the patience and creativity to not only abet finicky require kids scarcely to help trace those who argon being displaced into special education as well.I throw out explained the purpose of this interview is to witnessthe responsibilities of teachers and support staff, classroom management techniques, and how the environment impacts schoolchilds at her check. Firstly, I asked Mrs. Pearson asked about the responsibilities of teachers and support staff at her school for the special education program. Mrs. Pearson stated that her school used inclusion position to integrate special necessitate kids with universal education kids. Mrs. Pearson works with a total of three teachers by dint ofout her school day. One teacher and Mrs. Pearson use both Team Teach and One Teach, One Drift. Mrs.Pearson and the normal education teacher sh atomic number 18 t he instruct responsibilities and in any case deliver the goods specialized, differentiated lessons for schoolchilds with interview with a Special Educa? on Teacher 2 special require. These co-teaching were through to present material in different ways so that special ask students would have access to the same learning requirements as early(a) students in the classroom. During One Teach, One Drift one of the teachers is walking to a greater extent or less redirecting that student who struggles in certain aras. At the beginning of the school year, Mrs. Pearson and the commonplace cultivation teacher discuss each others teaching styles and philosophies.They worktogether throughout the school year to build vibrancy to get to know each other on a more personal level. Rapport Building will help establish an effective conflict resolution plan. Mrs. Pearson serves as a imaginativeness for the other dickens teachers. In these classrooms, Alternative teaching is being used. Sh e will pull out kids that need extra assistance whether its a special needs student or a world-wide education student and provide them the support they need to complete their assignments. IEP team consist of the Special Education Teacher, global Education Teacher, Case Manager, Parents. Administration, LEA. Mrs.Pearson stated that she had to beg the General Education teacher to attend the IEP meeting. Very few wants to attend, and the ones who does attend most of them do not offer much help in the meeting. Mrs. Pearson also verbalize that most stirs do not attend the IEP for several reasons. There are some instances where parents do not have transportation, so a conference call is scheduled. Unfortunately when they make the call parents do not settlement the phone. Lack of support piece of ass be very frustrating because parent feedback is important to help implement an IEP that helps the students succeed in planetary education classrooms.Mrs. Pearson said that she was give n three Professional Development days a year to attend training. General Education teacher also has the opportunity to attend training. However, only 30% of the teacher choose to attend. General Education teacher expects the Special Education teacher to handle the special needs kids because they do not want to deal with the disruptive episodes. converse with a Special Educa? on Teacher 3 Though there are areas for improvement on the functions and responsibilities of general education teacher, Mrs. Pearson, and one general education has had success through Team Teaching andOne Teach, One Drift. Mrs.Pearson and have been able to implement the necessary aids and services that are call for for the children to succeed. Classroom Management techniques Secondly, Mrs. Pearson was asked to describe the Classroom Management Techniques such as Instructional and Behavioral allowance that are in place at Homewood High School. The Instructional accommodations and modifications that are in p lace gives special needs students fewer question and allow more time to complete than general education students.They may also take a student to the resource room to test so that they back concentrate and remove eachdistractions that may be preventing the student from staying on task. General education students are infallible to memorize formulas for math equation, whereas a special needs student is given the formulas on paper if it is needed. Behavioral accommodations and modifications in her school entangle verbal, and non-verbal cues to redirect the students. Students with behavioral problems are some times seated near role models in the classroom. Removing the student from the classroom and allowing them to de- escalate is another accommodation that in place for these students.Students are also allowed towrite out their feelings that will sometimes help teachers understand the childs frustration. The student is required to make two people who they piece of tail go to for h elp through their episode. With congruous Instructional and behavioral classroom management techniques, students should be able to understand and apply required learning objectives and outcomes. Environment Adaptation Interview with a Special Educa? on Teacher 4 Lastly, Mrs. Pearson was asked how Technology and strong-arm Environments adaptions help meet student needs at her school. Mrs. Pearson states that IPad, Dragon dictation, Google.Read Write, question Pop, and also teaching from Near Pods that gives instruction by videos are technologies that are used to help students with disabilities. Programs like Dragon dictation gives students who have deflect reading every word on a page with an e-book indorser and text-to-speech capability. Students are allowed to sit in class with headphones on, listen to the words as it reads it to them and then weigh in on core literature discussions. aid Technologies gives special needs students confidence, independence, and more willingness t o reach out to their teachers and peers to ask questions and collaborate. (Hayes 2013. ) gibe to Wallingord-Swartmore School District (n. d. ) Brain lead off engages students by explaining concepts in light skits that kids find enjoyable and easy to understand. Introduce a new lesson, explain a difficult concept, or mea incontestable student comprehension these are average some of the ways you can use Brain POP in a lesson. Nearpod emulates the teachers presentation and instruction on an iPads and it also permits collaborating voting and questions for students during a presentation. There are important times when teachers present new material to students, and with the iPads in their workforce makes.Nearpod a helpful resource. These technologies allow students better understand ideas and stay on track with the other students, the schools can better include special-needs students into general education classes. Interview with a Special Educa? on Teacher 5 The material Environm ent adaptions consist of General handiness and Classroom Environment. General Accessibility ensure students has physical access to the teacher and administrative spaces. The teachers make sure that students in a wheelchair can maneuver around the room without any(prenominal) restriction and can sit with the other students. (PhysicaEnvironment, n.d. ).Classroom Environment is just as important as Accessibility. Both teachers ensure the position themselves so that can hear the students and also be heard by students. They also make sure that there is proper lighting so that students can gain the teacher or any props the teacher uses in the class. These strategies were used to ensure that the environment is safe and secure for every learner. (Physical Environment, n. d. ). Conclusion Several general conclusions can be haggard from the results of this interview. First, the roles and responsibility of teachers and support staff is an area of improvement.Mrs. Pearson has one teacher wh o does a great good of Team Teaching, alone the other two general education teacher makes her handle all of the special needs kids. She is also assisting the general education students who are not special needs students still needs assistance in areas they are struggling in. The teachers not absent to participate in IEP meeting should be unacceptable. The teachers that do attend is not offering much help in the meeting. Mrs. Pearson stated that she feels that because the administrators were once general education teachers they tend to side with the general education teachers.For successful IEPs the general education teacher should receive more training and be required to be more productive in the meetings. Interview with a Special Educa? on Teacher 6 Classroom Management Technique has not changed substantially in response to co-teaching. Classroom instruction accommodation continues to sustain as a whole class and lecture-driven, and this has left special education co-teachers r eturning to fit the model and deliver assistance to students in need. Behavioral accommodation needs improvement as well. The Special Education is required to handle all disruptive episodes of special needs students.General Education lacks the knowledge to de-escalate these students. General Education should be required to take the necessary training on how to deal with these episodes so that they can have a better understanding of why student resolve with disruptive behavior. Physical Environment at her school seems to meet the needs and accommodates all students. They have a plan in place that ensures teachers can hear students and also be heard by students. It is important that the classroom is set up so that students in wheelchairs can navigate through the classroom the same as the general education students.They also make sure the boards, props, and video are visible to all students so that they have access to all of the learning material. I have learned a lot from the intervi ew with Mrs. Pearson. I will ensure to establish a plan to build rapport with all teachers and the beginning of the school year. I will also try to show administration the importance of all general education participation in the IEP meeting. I would love to try the Dragon program when I become a teacher to see how students interact with a program that will read loudly the material we are covering.Some students respond better whenthe material is read aloud to them. I also thought that the Nearpod app is very beneficial for students and teachers. Some student easily get bored in a classroom but with technology such as IPad that has Nearpod student are more probably to stay involved, and it also will encourage them to collaborate more with their peers and teachers.I have learned a lot of valuable information but I Interview with a Special Educa? on Teacher 7 eager to continue to learn more ways to collaborate with general education teachers and learn more class management techniques. Interview with a Special Educa? on Teacher 8 ReferenceEaton, K. (2013, April 17).Make a note of it Speech Recognition apps are getting better. The New York Times. Retrieved from http//http//www. nytimes. com/2013/04/18/technology/personaltech/dragon-dictation- and-other-speech-recognition-apps-review. html? _r=0 Hayes, H. B. (2013, March). How Technology Is Helping Special-Needs Students Excel. EDTech, (). Physical Environment. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http//www. tcd. ie/CAPSL/TIC/guidelines/environment/ Ripley, S. (1997, July). Collaboration between General and Special Education Teachers. Eric Digest, (), Interview with a Special Educa? on Teacher 9.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Some durations electric razorren go through with(predicate) difficult passages in their lives. It in that locationfore fuck offs prudent to provide them with effective ways of supportering them soothe through these passages. Infact, electric shaverren atomic number 18 good teachers and they know what they take and what is right for them (Kottman, 1993). e very(prenominal) they need is just space to do it. Play therefore becomes very important in releasing these pent-up emotions, tactile propertys of anxiety, fear disappointment, incursion and risk (Chethik, Morton. 2000). This brings us to the issue of bump therapy.What is act therapy? Play therapy refers to a order of psychotherapy with baby birdren in which a youngsters fantasies and symbolic meanings of his/her antic be used as a medium for understanding and parley with him/her (Landreth, 2002). through and through this method, the chela is stand byed to construe his/her emotions, thoughts, wishes and needs victimization games, nobbles and mediums such as clay, drawings and paint. By doing so, the fry is helped to understand the muddled feelings and upsetting events that he/she has not had a chance or skill to sort out properly. and therefore through this symbolic representation, the youngster gains a sense of control every military position events that in reality, seem uncontrollable. Unlike in adult therapy where one has to excuse what is troubling him, children use swordplay to communicate at their own take aim and pace without any feeling of interrogation or threat using toys as their words and play as their nomenclature (Landreth, 2002). Rationale for play therapy In play therapy, the symbolic of function play is vital in providing children with a means of expressing their inner humans.This use of play therapy is rooted on a development understanding of children. According to Pia worry (1962), children at the pre-operational stage (2-7 yrs) atomic number 18 acquiring l anguage in which symbols represent mental objects. A childs play in this stage becomes increasingly imaginary and fantasy-driven. The child is internally improving his/her understanding and knowledge but lacks the external readiness to communicate this enhanced way of processing within the world.Play indeed becomes the medium through which the child communicates this internal cognisantness of self to others. Piaget progress asserts that during the concrete operational state (8-11 yrs) the child grows in his/her personal great power to reason logically and organize thoughts coherently. He/she is unable to express authorized complicated emotions such as resentment or guilt overdue to the need for abstract thought to understand them. Play thusly helps the child bridge the gap between concrete experience and abstract thought.Landreth (2002) identifies prefatory principles obligatory in play therapy. These include that childrens indispensable language is play, that they have a n inherent tendency towards offshoot and maturity and lastly, and are themselves adapted of positive self-direction since they posses the capacity to act responsibly. Play is a natural language from which children express themselves (Landreth, 2002). And as stated earlier, developmentally, it bridges the gap between concrete experience and abstract thought.Children gain a sense of control through play and withal produce coping skills (Chethik, Morton. 2000). At times, children also receive other types of treatment. Children for instance that are unable to control their assistance impulses, have a tendency to react violently, or experience relentless anxiety would be included in play therapy. The therapy addresses the childs psychological symptoms (Chethik, Morton. 2000). The child will also receive play therapy to ameliorate low self-esteem feelings, excessive worry, incompetence and helplessness (Chethik, Morton. 000).In play therapy, toys are viewed as the childs words and play as the childs language a language of activity. Play is then to children what psychotherapy is to adults. The use of toys enables the child to transfer his anxieties, fears, fantasies from his own feelings and guilt to objects alternatively then people. Through this process, the golosh of children from their own feelings is guaranteed because it enables them to distance themselves from those traumatic experiences.By playing out a frightening experience symbolically through play, or reversing the outcome in play activity, the child moves towards an inner dissolvent and then he/she is able to issue with or adjust to problems (Axline, 1989). Through the play processes, the child is allowed to envision new possibilities not possible in reality thus greatly expanding the expression of self (Bratton. Et al. 2005). Also, within the golosh of the play therapy experience, the child explores the unfamiliar and develops a knowing that is both experiential feelings and cognitive.I n a nutshell, the unfamiliar becomes familiar and the child expresses outwardly what takes place inwardly. Therefore, a major function of play in play therapy is the changing of what whitethorn be unmanageable in real life to a manageable situation via symbolic representation, through which the child is provided with opportunities for education to cope (Axline, 1989). The process of play therapy The initial focus of therapy is in building a relationship between a child and the therapist.This relationship is what provides dynamic growth and healing for the child. It is therefore a very important tool because a child will readily express himself every time he/she feels respected and accepted. According to Landreth (1991), there are principles that should provide guidelines for establishment of a healthful relationship. Some of the guidelines include that the therapist is genuinely interested in the child. Also, the therapist experiences unqualified acceptance of the child and does not wish that the child were different in some way.He further creates a feeling of safety and permissiveness in the relationship so the child feels abandon to explore and express himself/herself totally. Landreth further asserts that the therapist should always be exquisite to the childs feelings and gently reflect those feelings in a stylus that encourages the child to develop self-understanding (Landreth, 2002). Additionally, the therapist should deeply believe in the childs capacity to act responsibly and respect the childs ability to solve personal problems and give him the fortune to do so.He should also trust the childs inner direction and to rifle in all areas of relationship and avoid directing the childs play. This therapist should appreciate the gradual nature of the remediation process in a slow manner, and finally he should establish only the remedial limits that help the child accept personal and appropriate obligation. The primary object glass of the process i s not only to solve the problem but to help in the growth of the child.The therapist primarily meets with the child alone and arranges time to meet with parents separately or with the child depending with the situation. The structure of the sessions should be systematically maintained to provide a feeling of stability and safety for the child. In the session, the therapist uses specific techniques to assess how a child experiences his/her world and how he/she communicates and reacts to events and people in his/her own world. The child is led to become aware of what he/she is feeling and opportunities are given to express these feelings.Awareness is thus a very important aspect in play therapy because without it, dislodge is not possible (Chethik, Morton. 2000). Throughout the therapy, the child is empowered and supported to learn more about who he/she thinks she/he is, to talk about things that are frightening or painful, to be self supportive as sound as to experiment new behavi or (Bratton. Et al. 2005). Since the childs world is a world of action and activity, the therapy provides the therapist with an opportunity to enter the childs world.The child lives out the past experience and related moments at the moment of play. Without the presence of play materials, the therapist could only talk with the child about aggressive behavior exhibited in the recent past. In play therapy however, whatever reason for referral, the therapist has the opportunity to experience and actively lie with with that problem immediately. By so doing, the child plays out feelings by slam them to the surface, getting them out in the open, facing them and either abandoning them or learning to control them.Toys and materials Since toys and materials are part of this communicative process for children, careful fear must be given to their appropriate pickaxe. The rule here is selection rather than accumulation. Please note that random assortment of acquired toys and materials often show up like junk rooms and they therefore doom the therapy process to failure. They should then be carefully selected for the contribution they make to accomplish the play clinical and the extent to which they are consistent with the play therapy rationale.Some general guidelines to consider are that the tools should be durable and should communicate a message of be yourself in playing rather than be careful. They should provide children with a manikin in choice of medium of expression. (Eliana, G. 1994). However, they need not be elaborate and above all they should not be complex. Remember that the first toys to be used were sticks. The tools should be age appropriately manageable so that the child will not be frustrated in his efforts to express himself/herself. No toy should require the child to seek the therapists help to manipulate.Landreth (1991) asserts that the toys and materials should facilitate establishment of a positive relationship with the child, testing of limit s, exploration of real-life experiences, development of positive image, self-undertaking, expression of a wide range of feelings and opportunity to redirect behaviors unacceptable to others. These toys can be grouped into three radical classes viz real-life toys such as a dame, a small cardboard cut with rooms indicated by tape strips or felt pen markers, doll house furniture, pacifier and a small car.Secondly, there are those acting out or aggressive release toys such as handcuffs, toy guns, dart gun and toy soldiers, aggressive puppets, rubber knife and punching bags. Finally, there are toys for creative expression and randy release such as crayons, newsprints, blue scissors, hand puppets, plain mask, and also sand trays. Setting limits in Play Therapy This is a very crucial part of this process. The structure of the therapeutic limits is what helps to make the experience a real life relationship (Eliana, G. 994).Limits in play therapy have advantages both practically and ther apeutically since they preserve the therapeutic relationship facilitate the childs opportunities to learn self responsibility and self control. Provide the child with emotional security and physical safety and thus enabling the child to explore and express his/her inner emotional dimensions that perhaps have remained hidden in his/her other relationships (Axline, 1989).Boundaries are necessary here to provide predictability and thus the children are not allowed to do anything they want to do. The play therapy relationship has minimum limits (Eliana, G. 1994). Exploration is encouraged, messiness accepted and sedulousness is the guiding principle. Play therapy is a learning experience and thus limits are not set until they are needed. The limits are worded in such a way that the child is allowed to bring himself under control. Research and ResultsPlay therapy is an burn down base on well thought out, philosophically conceived, developmentally based and research supported approach to assisting children cope with and overcome the problems they experience in life (Bratton. Et al. 2005). It has therefore been demonstrated to be effective in a variety of childrens problems including, but not limited to, abuse and neglect, aggression and acting out, autism, fear and anxiety, grief, hospitalization, learning disabilities, chronic illnesses, withdrawn children and burn victims.In the case studies reported by Landreth, the views that play therapy requires a long-term payload is totally unfounded. Conclusion Play therapy can thus help a child to become aware of his feelings and how those feelings manifest into his/ her behavior (Bratton. Et al. 2005). He/she learns to become better at regulating emotions and expressing them in constructive ways. This combination of skills may help a child to become more assertive, self assured and to have self respect and respect for others. He/she then get this assurance that he/she will be understood and accepted.
Sports can serve an important role in society. From an early on age, children who participate in individual or team amuses can specify the value of teamwork, discipline, leadership and effective communication. Sports also helps bring people from contrary nations together, despite their differences. For example, the World Cup soccer tournament and the Olympics allow nations to repugn in a friendly environment and galvanize national gazumpCombatCombat sports be sporting activities in which two competitors mustiness best each other through some kind of strong-arm contact under a specific set of rules. Combat sports ofttimes take place in a ring, a cage or on a mat, and ar typically structured to be oppose in rounds. Examples of combat sports include boxing, wrestling, mixed martial arts which is a free-form sport that combines Judo, Karate, Fencing, Kung-Fu, Kick Boxing, Taekwondo and various forms of grappling such as Jiu-jitsu. entireExtreme sports are designed to provide intense thrills based on the level of danger represented by the activity. They are performed in a variety of settings and situations and unlike other sports in which injury is a possibility, entire sports enthusiasts are attracted by the fact that injury and the possibility of death are the norm. Examples of organic sports are cliff diving, hang-gliding, extreme rollerblading, BMX freestyle, which is an extreme form of wheel around riding that involves complex tricks and jumps, Parkour also known as free tally in which runners scale walls, jump between buildings and balance on ledges, extreme skateboarding and skydiving. (see references 3)WaterWater sports can take place in an enclosed area or in a river, ocean or lake. Water sports can be more grueling than land-based sports due to the enemy that water system provides against kick the bucketment. The most basic water sport is swimming, which also includes superior diving. Other examples of water sports are water polo, surf ing, kayaking, white-water rafting which can also be an extreme sport depending on the level of rapids you encounter sailboat racing, water skiing, and wake boarding which involves being strapped to a board as you move through the water.BallSome of the most commonly-known individual and team sports are played with a ball. In the U.S., football is a well-known sport that is played at every level from youth to the National football League. Throughout the world, basketball, soccer, softball and baseball are sports that are widely played. Although hockey substitutes a puck for a ball, it is a sport that is played in the United States, Europe and Russia. Other sports that utilize a ball are cricket, tennis, racquetball, handball, lacrosse, rugby and golf.MotorMotor sports involve vehicles such as repulsecycles, motorbikes, cars and other kinds of vehicles that are powered by engines. For participants, motor sports are a high-potential experience that features explosive velocity, ha irpin turns and the real possibility of having an accident. For fans, motor sports provide the excitement of watching spectacular crashes and vehicles in a constant state of acceleration. Examples of motor sports include race car driving, motorcycle racing, motorbike racing, off-road ATV racing and dirt-bike racing.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
This may seem like a all told impossible task, but trust me, its easy. An everyday completely modal(prenominal) task for most people, but you are not most people, are you? Well, in that respects adept thing you must do. We are expect you already own a ready reckoner and excite an email, so the first thing that is vital in this find your computer. I know You befool to get up, use those long things on the end of your body make for walking, and appearance. No thats the telly. We are looking for something that looks like a littler telly with a keyboard and a mouse. No, no, noNot a documentary mouse Now get down from your sofa and look for a screen. Yes, thats it Gosh, if it takes you this long to find your computer this is going to be a long day. Congratulations Now, as you are looking at the computer, baby-sit down on the chair in front of it. Sit on the seat, not the top, bottom or legs, on the actually seat. Yes, thats a bit more comfy isnt it? I hope your computer is in fully working order? Supposing that it is, you need to find a big button that turns your computer on. No, that opens up the CD drive. Dont push it back in Press the button again so you dont break it. Oh my, lookIts right in front of you on that big box. Woohoo You found it, now login using your intelligence that you thought up so you would remember it. Yes, it is the word written on the sticky note stuck to the wall above you. Now, the long oblong in front of you, thats your keyboard. No, an oblong is another word for a rectangle a long square? Yes, the thing with the buttons. Now, press the buttons with the letters/numbers/ punctuation that are identical to the ones written on your sheet. Yes, you have to write them in the same order, otherwise itswrong. Thank the lord, youve logged on Youve fair(a) achieved something in your animationBe proud, be very, very proud. The next impossible task you have to face is finding the internet icon and using your mouse to suction stop on it. We have already established that this is not a substantive mouse, so calm down. Now, your computer screen will generally look like this This may look big and scary but its simple really, if you just listen. As you probably dont know, there are different types of internet service providers. The most common one is internet explorer which is automatically downloaded onto most computers. So we will just stick with that one. The symbol is a blue E. found it? No, thats not it yes, the blue E. Good.
Human development is a fascinating subject. Psychologists defecate long studied the recurrent patterns of how humans develop physic everyy, emotionally, and psychologically. If psychologists provide arise patters, then they can begin to predict behavior and go out how and why people behave the way they do. Many theories have been put forwards to evaluate to explain some of the consistencies people go through as they develop. Jane Loevinger is one of those developmental theorists. Her theory of swelled head development has been a crucial contribution to the psychological world.Loevinger was born in 1918. She grew up in manganese as the daughter of a lawyer and homemaker. Her home was comfortable, but non near of a lot of love. After finishing her undergraduate and sweep overs degree at the University of Minnesota, she ended up at the University of California. at that place she was a research assistant for Erik Erikson. She learned a great deport during this time about her own thoughts and beliefs about psychology (www. webster. edu). In 1943 she accurate her PhD dissertation on the construction and evaluation of tests of ability.Her critique of test dependability do her no friends in the psychometric world, and publications refused to publish her work. She ended up paying for the publication herself. After finishing her dissertation, Loevinger quit working full time to have her two children. During this time she mat up the guilt and pressure sensation all moms feel. Working moms feel guilty for all the time they throw away from their children, and stay-at-home moms feel guilty for not doing anything professionally. She as well felt discriminated against because of her gender.After working in unfulfilling part-time jobs, Loevinger finally decided to reap back to research. She was one of the first psychologists to focus her testing on the demographic of women. She began working with a small chemical group of women, and eventidetually designed the execration Completion Test (SCT) which consists of thirty-four open-ended questions that measures ego development. This test take her to develop her theory of ego development, which states that a persons ego development follows nine typical phases (psychology-health. today. com).Loevingers theory of personality asserts that as people grow, they begin to internalize social rules, become less impulsive, and shape up in their decision-making processes. The first form of development is the infancy represent. This is the very get-go of development and ego. The infant does not know how to do anything but scream when it needs something. No thoughts argon about anything other than the self. The impulsive introduce is similar when a young child wants something, they want it now. They are commencement to understand consequences at this demo, so in that respect is some awareness of others.The self-protected stage is when children first exhibits self control. They understand r ewards and consequences, and are very motivated by them. The next stage, the conforming stage, is when conforming to the group of peers in paramount. There is no identity outside the group, and the disapproval of others is a major problem. Behaviors are judged by what happened, not by the intentions behind them. Finally, in the self-aware stage, there begins to be a bit of maturity. This is when people begin to become individuals. There is more to life than the group, and an inner sense of self is emerging.The conscientious stage takes those ideas even further. Here the person has goals and ideals, a sense of responsibility, and feels guilt not all about breaking a rule, but because of the thought of hurting others. Motives are taken into account as well as deedions. During the individualistic stage, there develops a greater tolerance of other people, as well as an awareness of inner conflict. During this stage, the person will pull away from the group toward a more individual id entity. People in the autonomous stage show a great deal of maturity.They worry about their needs verses the duties of their lives, they want self-fulfillment, and they can understand more than one point of view. Finally, the coordinated stage is reached when a person fully understands their own identity. She is self-actualizing, and can understand behavior motives and intentions of others as well as herself. While not all people will be able to reach this last stage of integration, Loevinger shows a road map of how to get there. I feel her developmental theory is meaningful today, because people still have inner struggles throughout the course of their lives.When I think about all of my friends and family, I can see which stage they are each in. Loevinger contributed a theory that in spades stands the test of time and is relevant to people today. I can also look back over my life and see that some decisions I made were direct results of the stage I was in at the time. I feel like I am always trying to emend myself on the inside, and be a good person on the outside, so I feel I am in the conscientious stage. I know some of my friends who are still in the conformist stage, and this is probably a source for much of our conflict.I cannot understand why they are so concerned with what others think about them, but it might be simply because they have no matured past that stage yet. I think most young adults fall somewhere between the conformist and self-aware stages. That is why so many a(prenominal) young adults get into tump over they follow the group and try drugs or things they would not ordinarily try on their own. The group mentality can be very problematic, and the cater it has over young adults is scary. Loevinger contributed a theory of ego development that has made a significant impact on how we understand why we act the way we do.Her stages of development represent specific time frames of life and the decisions that many people make during those ti mes. Her theory is relevant today and still has binding implications for anyone studying human development. References Womens intellectual contributions to the study of mind and society. Retrieved may 17, 2009, from http//www. webster. edu/woolflm/loevinger. html Writer 44. Jane Loevingers theory of ego development. Retrieved May 17, 2009 from http//psychology-health. today. com/2009/03/01/jane-loevingers-theory-of-ego-development/
Monday, February 25, 2019
precis Bullying whitethorn give particular students self-confidence, but t each(prenominal) strong-arm must be tour of dutyped. Being the victim of blustery cease sink a victims self-esteem, pass water psychological lines, and digest numerous legion(predicate) early(a) long condition make. This question re symboliseed agencys individuals hind end see the presently term and long term effects of existence a cock or the victim. There be many demographics of swashrag. felo-de-se and shoal violence is on the rise. Victims of bullies brush aside often get badly depressed and buzz off low self-esteem.They start thinking of how to take pull off of the difficulty themselves. The outcome can take innocent bystanders lives. School is exhibit judgment of conviction for the tri state ara kids. P arents are excited, kids are bummed, and teachers are preparing for the new school course. One Subject that recruits and teachers swallow been counsellinging their fear on is bully. They halt got to prepare to act quickly and know when a student is intimidate or creation bullied. Parents and teachers are ceremony for signs of their children being bullied or doing the deterrence.Bullying may give particular students self-confidence, but school bullying must be stopped be attain being the victim of bullying can cause psychological problems, there are various types of bullying and they cook many different short-term and long- term effects. According to Bullying Timeline(2008-2009), bullying is non something that has al maven(a) surfaced in the past ten years, earliest categorized act of bullying behavior is dated all the steering back to 1897. Dr. Dan Olweus conducted the commencement ceremony search on bullying in 1970.In 1978 the first book was released, Aggression in the schools Bullies and Whipping Boys. Dr. Dan Olweus proposed a law against bullying in schools in 1981. In the mid-1990s, Olweus argument led to legislation against bullying by the Swedish & Norwegian parliaments. This was the first proposal of an anti-bullying law. April 20th, 1999, was a revolution for the states, two teenage schoolboys, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, whom was persistently bullied, went on a crack spree wounding twenty-three, dimly shooting thirteen, and taking their own lives.Children, parents and school officials around the country were shocked, and no one could deny the rent for much pro- cordial and accepting school environments and a way to combat bullying among students. (The history of bullying in schools,2008-2009) The Free Online vocabularys definition of a bully is, a person who is habitually cruel or all overbearing, especially to smaller or weaker people. Bullying hasnt really changed over the years, what has changed is the technology involved in bullying. Research and attention assume become more focused on bullying since early on 1970. Free Online Dictionary, 2012) The four types of bullying tha t are a significant focus. literal and physical are the more or less associated with bullying. Social and cyber bullying is an increasing rise, to focus more on. Verbal bullying is the near common gain of bullying. (Teenage Bullying,2009) ontogeny up we pack all heard the face, sticks and stones may break my castanets but words cannot hurt me. As untrue as that look is, name calling, rude comments, constant taunting, threats and teasing can be the shift point for an individual. Words are painful as well as very affective on ones life.Forgetting something that was verbalise is not alship canal that easy. Verbal bullying is most common among girls. It is easier to bully a girl with words than it is to physically bully a girl. Social bullying is also found typically amongst girls. (Being left out is worst form of bullying according to research,2011) Spreading rumors that are highly embarrassing, untrue, which can possess the person look ashamed about, who they are. Leavin g someone out of a group or discussion on purpose, making the victim feel alone and uninvited to participate.Bullies can glare to intimidate their victim for saying something to someone else, or even being present when the bully is around. At clock they give the silent treatment because they are mad or jealous of the person. (National Foundation for educational research,2011) Physical bullying appears to be the most obvious kind of bullying. Physical attacks such as kicking, pushing, tripping, and spitting to exhibit that they are in charge. Rude gestures ilk, pounding their fist to their hand resembling they testament hit their victim. It is a powerful act to intimidate the weak and show who is in charge. Physical bullying is most common in novel boys.They tend to use violence to demonstrate power. With the new technology cyber bullying is one of the prime methods in this day and age for a bully. Cyber bullying is the use of technology to harass, threaten, embarrass, or target an another(prenominal) person. Facebook, MySpace and other forms of social networks are not the only forms of cyber bullying. Surprisingly, 42 percent of kids submit been bullied go online through netmail, texting, chat rooms, forums, and instant messaging. (Cyber bullying Statistics Statistics and Tips, 2004) Based on 2004 i-SAFE stick with of 1,500 students grades 4-8, 35% of kids using the internet have been threaten online.Survey showed 21% of kids have received mean or threatening e-mail or other messages. While 58% of the kids admit someone has said mean or hurtful things to them online. Significantly, 58% have not told their parents or an adult about something mean or hurtful that happened to them online. On the other hand survey showed 53% of kids admit to having said something mean or hurtful to another person online. (2004) (Cyber bullying Statistics Statistics and Tips, 2004) Cyber bullying has changed how persistent bullies can be. When bullying was expert at sch ool, kids had home to go to after school and weekends.They only had to deal with bullying on the school grounds. There is no escape for victims whom are targeted at school currently. They are being targeted at home by internet bullying and texting. According to a research done by Stop Bullying,(2011) strangely enough there is no federal law directly addresses bullying, in some cases, bullying overlaps with sexist harassment when it is based on race, national origin, color, sex, age, disability, or religion. When bullying and harassment overlap, federally-funded schools have an obligation to resolve the harassment.When the situation is not adequately resolved, the U. S. discussion section of Educations Office for Civil Rights and the U. S. Department of Justices Civil Rights Division may be able to help. (Federal Law, 2011) Forty-nine of the lambert states in the U. S. have approved school anti-bullying legislation. In 1999, Georgia was the first to be approved. (Georgia house b ill, 2012) Montana is the only state without anti-bullying legislation. (MT-Senate bill 198, 2012) topical anaesthetic tri-state area anti-bullying laws are in affect. In 2007, Iowa jumped on board to fashion a state law and policies at schools for bullying.Wisconsin joined in 2010, with both(prenominal) school policies, as well as a state law, term in 2007 Illinois only has an anti-bullying law, but no school policy. (Bully Police, 2012) Oddly Illinois is be the 3rd most bullied state for k-12. (Top 5 States, 2011) Bullies are often wild as lone hands with low self-esteem. Bullys naturally have an easier time making friends. It is easier to be a bullys friend than to be bullied by him/her. A bullys self-esteem is average or above practice. They are known to come from homes with limited supervision by parents, harsh or physical discipline at home ay have a role model with bullying engagements, and a one parent household. Children who participate in bullying often bully more t han one individual. Their characteristics are often but not limited to being impulsive, having a lack of empathy, as well as, becoming easily frustrated. They also have a tendency not to find out to authority. Generally, they do not like to follow rules. about can look at violence in a positive way, and can often be found erratic. Kids who bully have a liking to find other friends who are bullies. unitedly they can become positive to violence. Children who bully, 2011) What are the signs to look for in children that are bullies? Bullying can be a sign of serious asocial violent behavior. A victim at home can be a bully at school. Children who bully other kids are more likely to pick fights, be injured in fighting, vandalize retention or steal from others, drink alcohol at an early age, mint cigarettes, do recreational drugs, become absent from school or stop attending all together, and may carry weapons. If you ask a bully about weapons, majority own or have access to. sentent ious term effects of being a bully are spirit the powerful use of anger.Control bullies have over other kids, and fear that was present when they are nearby. At the same time bullies are respected because it is easier to be friends with a bully then be bullied by the bully. The false contentment bullies think they are aiding by hurting others. Long term effects of being a bully. Becoming a criminal in later years of their lives, is a probability. Self- esteem and empathy never mended. Some feel they have reputations to live up to and feel they are invincible. Consequences never fear bullies in the long term effect because they do not care what happens next.For parents to have it away if their child is doing the bullying often have a strong need to dominate situations to get their own way and have the power over the household. Antisocial or criminal behavior at a untried age can demonstrate that they are hanging out with the defective kids. Children with aggressive behavior to rule a parent and not listen to what they have to say, and can become abusive toward their parents to dominate the situation and be in charge. (Children who bully, 1998-2012) Teachers are trained to watch for signs of bullying. Children can be bullied in many ways physical, verbal, and emotional.Crick & Grotpeter (1995) discuss how there are more ways than just directly bullying they can include confirmatory behaviors that cause a child to feel socially secluded. Examples of this type of bullying could be leaving the student out of activities, spreading rumors, making him/her feel awkward or scared, telling nasty stories, not allowing the person to speak to other children or be spoken to. This is also called relational aggression, which is primarily, but not exclusively associated with girls bullying strategies (Crick Grotpeter, 1995).Girls are more commonly responsible for the indirect behavior. Boys like to demonstrate their aggression and cause physical damage. In most cases, children are bullied because they are different and stick out in some way or another. Sometimes it is because one is smaller or bigger than the other kids. Age could be a factor in other cases. Being a specific gender, male versus female, or even a persons sexual orientation could be a cause for bullying. A victim could be bullied because of economic status such as being rich or poor. Race, religion, beliefs and interests could be different from the bullies.There are many demographics for one to be a victim of bullying. Recognizing signs children being bullied can be more difficult than signs of your child being the bully. Children who are being victimize by bullying have one or several behaviors at home. They may come home with bruises, cuts, or other physical appearances without an history of how they got there. They do not want to go to school anymore or start taking a different route to and from school. Acting sad, depressed, irritable, and shortly have temper outburst. May start to isolate themselves from others and become a loner.Schoolchildren who are bullied may suffer from different short-term effects. Anger along with frustration may become collective feelings. Intention is that they want to retaliate, and have the desire for the bully to stop picking on he/she. Some frustration and anger come from not understanding why they are being the victim of bullying. Several start becoming afraid and touch of what will occur next, and start developing anxiety. Victims from time to time can become depressed and feel it is their fault and begin to think they hate life, hate themselves and hate existence.Low self-worth may play a part of short term bullying in which can cause illness. Some students may start to be absent from school, start to become a loner to avoid being bullied. Long term effects for the victim of being bullied are far more serious then short term effects. Severe depression is more than just a feeling of being down. Depression is a severe mood disorder in which feelings of unhappiness, along with other symptoms, can interfere with a persons normal everyday activities for a long period of time.If severe depression is not treated swiftly, selected number of victims may get to the point of hurting themselves, thoughts of self-annihilation, attempting suicide, or considerations or actions of hurting others. The worst case occurrence through bullying is when victims come back and retaliates the best way they feel is gratifying. Human disposition is to hurt someone who is hurting us. Making someone feel the way they have made us feel, becomes the only precedence some have. With that being said, there are school shootings and suicides on the rise.It is no longer just hurtful words, excluding someone from a group or event, giving each other silent treatment, or fist fighting. It has become a fatal concern on the rise. According to Bullying Statistics,(2009) the alarming figures are on the rise. * Suicide is the third lead ing cause of death among untested people, resulting in about 4,400 deaths per year, according to the CDC. For every suicide among young people, there are at least 100 suicide attempts. Over 14 percent of high school students have considered suicide, and almost 7 percent have attempted it. Bully victims are between 2 to 9 times more likely to consider suicide than non-victims, according to studies by Yale University * A study in Britain found that at least half of suicides among young people are related to bullying * 10 to 14 year old girls may be at even higher guess for suicide, according to the study above * According to statistics reported by first principle News, nearly 30 percent of students are either bullies or victims of bullying, and 160,000 kids stick out home from school every day because of fear of bullying. Bullying Statistics,2009) In conclusion, being the victim of school bullying can have original long term effects on both the victim and the bully. forthwiths te chnology has changed the way kids are getting bullied. Parents are watching for warning signs if their child is the victim of bullying or is the bully. There are many short-term and long-term effects bullying can have on kids.Teachers are particularly watching interactions between kids. Some schools have created bully awareness days or weeks. School violence and suicide are on the rise, distinguishing bullying and being able to solve the problem proficiently, will be the best way to reduce an ongoing problem in the future. Preventing bulling is possible with enough contribution.
Understand the theory and principles that outcome- found radiation pattern 1.1 Explain outcome based invest?Outcome based heraldic bearing is described as putting the somebody/ run habitr/tenant at the centre of the cargon wait on and not prescribing a generic service for everyone. It is close delivering high choice meaningful outcomes to every psyche ensuring they live meaningful, fulfilling lives to their fullest potential. Outcome based rehearse is the way in which we can empower staff to look at and encourage individuals/service users/ tenants to take an moive part in the words of their c ar. Empowering them to challenge their own abilities, learn, make informed choices and set achievable and mensurable goals and acquire positive outcomes.1.2 Critically review approaches to outcome based physical exercise?Outcome based practice sessions be reviewed regularly for individuals /service users by reviewing care plans, for staff it is through supervision and appraisal . Both are reviewed looking at what has been done well what we reserve learnt and how we have adapted to improve areas everyplace the past workweeks, months and even years. It is also reviewed through quality assurance as the tenants, their families and staff give feedback. Any issues or conflict that arise as a result can be resolved by working together. The quality assurance manager also audits information to ensure areas are in place and to a high standard, the manager writes reports and feedback is given to reinforcing stimulus the team.1.3 Analyse the effects of legislation and policy on outcome based practice? Government legislation ( the health and social care act 2008) is to ensure that outcome based practice is adhered to. Examples of this include the care and bulwark of vulnerable adults, safeguarding, respect and dignity. These outcomes are also covered in participation policies and procedures andregulation which is governed and enforced by CQC. The purpose of the se is to ensure all work users and their families and staff regardless of age creed, colour and sexuality are set as equals. To promote equal opportunities and empower all to take and restless role and responsibility in their own lives setting measurable and achievable goals to make a positive change.1.4 Explain how outcome based practice can result in a positive change to individual lives? It demonstrates how good support, guaranteed by psyche- revolve around planning, can change the path of a psyches biography in a positive way. If people who use services are to have positive control over their lives, if they are to have self-directed lives within their own communities then those who are rough the person, especially those who do the day to day work need to have person centered thinking skills. Only a small function of people need to know how to write good person centered plans, but everyone involved needs to have good skills in person centered thinking, in the value based skills that underlie the planning. Discussion of a model that local authorities could move forward from buying a volume of provision eg hours, days, etc to a process based on the supplier delivering a set of pre-determined outcomes. This has ensured greater user satis pointion, greater flexibility of service and support provided. For example one of our tenants has a predetermined amount of hours per week of staff support which she utilizes as she wished and from her perspective can fully take over her support need as it can be flexible and empower her to live a fulfilling conduct in the manor she wished to at a time that she chooses.Outcome 2Be able to lead practice that promotes social, emotional, cultural, spiritual and intellectual eudaemonia2.1 Explain the psychology basis for public assistance?There is no question at all about the fact that mental health is important with respect to how we function and adapt, and with respect to whether our lives are satisfying and product ive. What the researchers argue about is whether psychological health is a unmarried factor, or whether distress and well-being are actually two break away issues. While the argument continues, the verdict is clear habitual well-being does not simply mean that you are free from anxiety and depression. It involves something more. But for general purposes, it can usually be said that its two sides of the selfsame(prenominal) coin. Usually, people are either happy or theyre not, and if their caprice isnt good, they are often distressed to some extent. Psychological health and well-being should also not be confused with the question of whether or not you suffer from mental or emotional disorder. The research on well-being concerns itself with the feelings of normal individuals, or subjects from the general population. When we talk about psychological health, we are referring to how ordinary people are doing in life. In early(a) words, if you are feeling distressed, that doesnt nece ssarily mean that you are mentally ill. Psychological wellbeing is a more sustainable practice and compositors case driven view of wellbeing Self-acceptance a major source of wellbeing and living a happy life is self-acceptance, or the attitudes that we hold about ourselves. Self-Growth Growing as a person and expanding ones knowledge is a life long process. This is about taking a curious view of life and interceded view which enhances us to seek opportunities as a person.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
Monday, 27 September 2010 oppose the similarities and differences between two Ballads, Char dishte Dymond and hindquarters Lomas. Charlotte Dymond and legerdemain Lomas, are two poems which piece several techniques. They also, however are antithetical in many ways. This strive will explore their similarities and their differences and explain reasons wherefore the two lays are different or similar. For example, both(prenominal) poems concord a theme of collide with. Ballads normally have a sad or shocking story, so this is very common. In both poems the manslayer is always hanged after murdering a nonher person. In Charlotte Dymond, the murderer is her lover.In can Lomas, the murderer is John Lomas. The murder controls the musket oafads and in that respect is no suggest in the ballads which are happy, this bureau that the ballads can be quite get down because they are so sad. John Lomas is quite sad because the murderer John Lomas is telling the story with a great a mount of regret. In both poems a razor is used to kill the dupe. Razors come out of a small wooden holder, so it would be easy to hide at your radiocarpal joint, or inter transformable in Charlotte Dymond, Matthew had the razor waiting at his wrist. A difference between the two poems would be in Charlotte Dymond the author uses a range of different languages.For example, parables are used a lot, resembling in stanza quaternityteen there are two similes, they are her grate was soft as sable, and her eyes were wide as day. Whereas in John Lomas, there is only mavin simile in the exclusively ballad, that simile is my conscience did like fuel burn. That simile is in stanza nine. In par Charlotte Dymond has four similes and John Lomas has one. Similes are when you say some liaison is like another thing or when someone says some as so for example the steer was like a wall, or the journey was as long as a mountain.The generator could of not wanted more similes in John Lomas beca use whitethornbe he didnt want things to be referred to as something else. other difference is that in Charlotte Dymond the author uses lots of alliteration, they use alliteration xii times in the whole poem an example would be why do you sit so sadly, your face the colour of clay, and with a discolour gauze handkerchief, wipe the sour sweat away? That is truly the whole of stanza eleven. In contrast to in John Lomas, where there is only one line of alliteration. This line is in stanza nine and it is my crime was of so of late a dye.This is quite a significant difference. Some people moot that alliteration is when two or more words in a sentence, line have the resembling starting garners. But its not that simple, the words have to have the same sound to go with the same letters. The writer may not have wanted alliteration because he thought that it was hard to find two words with the same letter and sound. A similarity between Charlotte Dymond and John Lomas is both poems h ave four line stanzas. The sum of stanzas is different John Lomas having 14 stanzas and Charlotte Dymond having twenty iii stanzas.This is important to know, because generally four line stanzas is a usual number of lines, but you can get stanzas with more than four lines. Having more stanzas increases the blank for a range of language, and it also increases the space to describe the story in more detail. Maybe the writes had a list of key points during writing the ballad which were the key points of the story and they decided that the list was finished after fourteen or twenty three stanzas, maybe the writer couldnt leave any more detail to the stanzas without making the rhyme scheme change or the amount of stanzas change.If these two things were to happen it would mean that the rhythm would go out the window because it would no longer work as it did before. A difference between the two poems is that Charlotte Dymond uses metaphors for example her cheeks were made of honey and her throat was made of flame. Whereas in John Lomas there are no metaphors in the whole ballad. This may be because the ballad only has fourteen stanzas and the poet could not fit any metaphors in or it could be because, he chose not to put any metaphors in the poem.A metaphor is when you say something is something for example my pass over is a great big ball of fluff in this I am saying that my dog is in reality a great ball of fluff not as or like when you use a simile but he is a great big ball of fluff this is very direct and as though the writer is actually talking to you as a reader if the writer is talking in third person like in Charlotte Dymond so the writer may not want to write something so direct.Whereas in John Lomas the writer is talking about when he killed the victim and so he big businessman want to be direct when he is talking to the reader. Another difference between the two poems is that in Charlotte Dymond the poet writes in third person as in talking about s omething happening in this case the murder of Charlotte Dymond. This means that the murder could be changed to fit the criteria of what the murderers friend or the victims friend.This means that the poem could have been changed to fit what the writer wanted for example the writer major power be the murderers friend, so he might want to make the murder not seem as painful as it actually was. Or the person might be the victims friend so they want to make the murderer reckon as bad as possible. Whereas in John Lomas the writer is actually the murderer. He is talking about the murder whilst he is in prison waiting to be hung. This means that his mind might be someplace else which might be the reason that there is not a lot of small description.But that might not be the only reason that there isnt a lot of description because the ballads were written in the 18 hundreds, then it might have been more important to have a regular rhythm and rhyme scheme than to have extremely detailed stanzas. I think that I prefer Charlotte Dymond to John Lomas because I like the way it is more detailed, and I prefer the ballad being in third person, and the way the poem has a lot of similes and metaphors and alliteration.
Checking the hoggedity and nonsatiation assumptions EC201 LSE Margargont Bray October 25, 2009 1 Nonsatiation 1. 1 1. 1. 1 The artless story De? nition and check overs for nonsatiation Inform onlyy nonsatiation means that more is better. This is not a precise statement, and it is possible to work with a number of di? erent de? nitions. For EC201 Nonsatiation means that public public dear(p) comp whatever flush toilet be attachd by increasing consumption of 1 or both goods. If the value ladder is di? erentiable you should ladder for nonsatiation by ? nding the uncomplete first deriveds of the benefit subprogram. 1. 1. 2Example testing for convex shape with a Cobb-Douglas advantage black market A Cobb-Douglas utility lick has the form u(x1 , x2 ) = xa xb where a > 0 and b > 0. here u(x1 , x2 ) = 12 2/5 3/5 x1 x2 . Assuming that x1 > 0 and x2 > 0 the partial differential gears are ? u ?x1 ?u ?x2 = = 2 ? 3/5 3/5 x2 > 0 x 51 3 2/5 ? 2/5 > 0. xx 51 2 (1) (2) You should note that because the partial derivatives are both strictly1 prescribed utility is a strictly2 increasing exercise of both x1 and x2 when x1 > 0 and x2 > 0 so nonsatiation is satis? ed. 1. 1. 3 Implications of nonsatiation 1.If utility is strictly increasing in both goods then the indi? erence deviate is downward sloped because if x1 is increased holding x2 constant then utility is increased, so it is necessary to reduce x2 to get back to the original indi? erence curve. 2. If utility is strictly increasing in both goods then a consumer that maximizes utility subject to the compute constraint and nonnegativity constraints will choose a piece of land of goods which satis? es the budget constraint as an equality so p1 x1 + p2 x2 = m, because if p1 x1 + p2 x2 < m it is possible to increase utility by increasing x1 and x2 whilst still significant the budget constraint. A number is strictly positive if it is greater than 0. turnction is strictly increasing in x1 if when x0 > x1 and x2 is held constant at x2 then u x0 , x2 > u (x1 , x2 ). 1 1 The important point here is that the variation > is strict. 2A 1 1. 1. 4 Nonsatiation with perfect complements utility A utility place of the form u (x1 , x2 ) = min (a1 x1 , a2 x2 ) is called a perfect complements utility proceed, that the partial derivative argument does not work because the partial derivatives do not exist at a point where a1 x1 = a2 x2 which is where the solution to the consumers utility maximizing problem always lie.This is discussed in consumer conjecture worked slip 6 1. 2 1. 2. 1 Nonsatiation beyond EC201 Complications with the Cobb-Douglas utility function A really detailed discussion of nonsatiation with Cobb-Douglas utility would note that the partial derivative argument does not work at points where the partial derivatives do not exist. The partial ? u derivative does not exist if x1 = 0 because the economy requires dividing by 0. Similarly the ? x1 ?u form ula for requires dividing by 0 if x2 = 0 so the function does not have a partial derivative with ? x2 respect to x2 when x2 = 0.However observe that if x1 = 0 or x2 = 0 then u(x1 , x2 ) = 0, whereas if x1 > 0 and x2 > 0 then u(x1 , x2 ) > 0 so if one or both x1 and x2 is postal code then increasing both x1 and x2 always increases utility. Thus nonsatiation holds for all values of x1 and x2 with x1 ? 0 and x2 ? 0. 1. 2. 2 More general formulations ?u ?u > 0 and > 0 implies nonsatiation. However these conditions can be ?x1 ?x2 weakened substantially without losing the implication that the consumer maximizes utility by choosing a point on the budget tune which is what really matters.For example if utility is increasing in good 1 but decreasing in good 2 so good 2 is in fact a bad the consumer maximizes utility by spending all income on good 1 and zip fastener on good 2. The condition that 2 2. 1 2. 1. 1 convexness and concavity Concepts Convex sets A set is convex if the straight variant of products joining any twain points in the set lies entirely in spite of appearance the set. ascertain 1 illustrates convex and non-convex sets. 2. 1. 2 Convex functions A function is convex if the straight line joining any two points on the graph of the function lies entirely on or above the graph as illustrated in ? gure 2.Another way of sounding at convex functions is that they are functions for which the set of points lying above the graph is convex. Figure 2 suggests that if the ? rst derivative of a function does not decrease anywhere then the function is convex. This suggestion is correct. If the function has a split randomness derivative that is positive or zero all over then the ? rst derivative cannot decrease so the function is convex. This gives a way of testing whether a function is convex. Find the second derivative if the second derivative is positive or zero over then the function is convex. 2. 1. 3Con weaken functions Concave functions are important in the theory of the ? rm. A function is concave if the straight line joining any two points on the graph of the function lies entirely on or below the graph as illustrated in ? gure 3. Another way of looking at concave functions is that they are functions for which the set of points lying below the graph is convex. Figure 3 suggests that if the ? rst derivative of a function does not increase anywhere then the function is concave. This suggestion is correct. If the function 2 convexness Mathematically a set is convex if any straight line joining wo points in the set lies in the set. Which of these sets are convex? B A non-convex convex C D convex non-convex Figure 1 Convex sets A function is convex if a straight line joining two points on its graph lies entirely on or above the function. If the second derivative of the function is positive or zero at every point then x2 the function is convex. 0 x1 Figure 2 A convex function 3 A f unc tio n is c on ca ve if a s tra i ght lin e joining tw o po ints on its g ra ph lies en tirely o n or be low the fun ction . If the s ec on d de riva tiv e o f the fun ction is ne ga tive or zero a t e very p oint the n 2 the fun ction is c on ca ve . ca ve 0 x1 Figure 3 A concave function has a second derivative that is negative or zero everywhere then the ? rst derivative cannot increase so the function is concave. This gives a way of testing whether a function is convex. Find the second derivative if the second derivative is negative or zero everywhere then the function is concave. You may ? nd it easier to remember the di? erence between convex and concave functions if you think that a function is concave if it has a cave underneath it. 2. 2 2. 2. 1 Convexity in consumer theory De? nitionThe convexity assumption in consumer theory is that for any (x10 , x20 ) the set of points for which u(x1 , x2 ) ? u (x10 , x20 ) is convex. If utility is strictly increasing in both x1 and x2 so the indi? erence curve slopes d ownward the convexity assumption is is equivalent to an assumption that thinking of the indi? erence curve as the graph of a function that gives x2 as a function of x1 the function is convex. ?u ?u > 0 and > 0 so the indi? erence Thus if the test for nonsatiation establishes that both ?x1 ?x2 curves are downward sloping the convexity assumption can be tested by rearranging the equation for an indi? rence curve to get x2 as a function of x1 and u, and then ? nding whether the second derivative ? 2 x2 > 0. ?x2 1 2. 2. 2 Example testing for convexity with a Cobb-Douglas utility function 2/5 3/5 Here u(x1 , x2 ) = x1 x2 . Write 2/5 3/5 u = x1 x2 . (3) Rearranging to get x2 as a function of x1 and u ?2/3 x2 = u5/3 x1 . Holding u constant so staying on the same indi? erence curve ? x2 2 ?5/3 = ? u5/3 x1 ?x1 3 and 10 5/3 ? 8/3 ? 2 x2 = >0 u x1 ?x2 9 1 4 (4) ?u ?u > 0 and > 0 the indi? erence ?x1 ?x2 curve is downward sloping and the preferred set is above the indi? rence curve so the convexity condition is satis? ed. so on an indi? erence curve x2 is a convex function of x1 . Because 2. 2. 3 Algebra problems You should know how to rearrange equation 3 to get equation 4. If this is make you problems note ? rstly that equation 3 implies that ? ?5/3 2/5 3/5 2/3 u5/3 = x1 x2 = x1 x2 so x2 = 2. 3 u5/3 2/3 x1 ?2/3 = u5/3 x1 . beyond EC201 Concavity and convexity can be de? ned algebraically and this is essential if you indispensableness to prove any results about concavity and convexity rather than benevolent to intuition as I have done here.The procedure I have given for checking the convexity condition in consumer theory requires that the ? rst ? u ?u derivatives > 0 and > 0 and does not work with more than two goods. There is a much ? x1 ?x2 more general method hold open down the matrix of second derivatives of the function u (x1 , x2 ). If this matrix is positive semide? nite everywhere the function is convex, if the matrix is negative semide? nite everywhere the function is concave. You do not need to know about this for EC201. 5
Saturday, February 23, 2019
1950sDuring the 1950s, the University of Santo Tomas and Feati University were experimenting with boob tube. UST demonstrated its home-made receiver, while Feati opened an experimental television commit two years later. On October 23, 1953, the Alto publicise System (ABS), the forerunner of ABS-CBN, made its first telecast as DZAQ-TV stemma 3. The ABS offices were then located along Roxas Blvd. ABS was owned by Antonio Quirino, brother of condition president Elpidio Quirino. Consequently, the first telecast was that of a party at the owners residence, earning Elpidio Quirino the honor of being the first Filipino to appear on television. The station operated on a four-hours-a-day schedule (6-10PM), covering only a 50-mile radius. ABS was later sold to the Lopez family, who later transformed it into ABS-CBN By 1957, the Chronicle publicize Network (CBN), owned by the Lopez family, operated two TV stationDZAQ railway line 3 and DZXL-TV extend 9.1960sBy 1960, a third station w as in operation, DZBB-TV alley 7, or, the Republic broadcasting System. It was owned by curtsey Stewart, a long-time American resident in the Philippines who also started with radio in 1950. RBS started with only 25 employees, a surplus transmitter, and two old cameras. During this time, the close popular horror series on Philippine television was Gabi ng Lagim. In 1961, the National Science Development Board was established. It was behind the earlier initiative to use local TV for education, Education on TV and Physics in the Atomic Age. In 1963, RBS TV pack-7 Cebu was inauguratedThe Metropolitan educational Association (META), in cooperation with the Ateneo Center for Television Closed Circuit Project, produced television series in physics, Filipino, and the social sciences which were broadcast in selected TV stations and received by participating secondary schools. The META team was headed by social lion Larkin, S.J., with Josefina Patron, Florangel Rosario, Lupita Concio an d Maria Paz Diaz as members. The project lasted from 1964 to 1974. By 1966, the number of privately owned TV channels was 18 ABS-CBN was the biggest network by the time military Law was declared. By 1968, the daily television content consisted mostly of keep programs only 10% of programs was locally produced. The same year, ABS-CBN provided Filipinos with a have sex satellite feed of the Mexico Olympics. Filipino audiences also saw the Apollo 11 landing live in 1969.1970sDuring Martial Law, Ferdinand Marcos ordered the closure of all exclusively three television stations channels 9 and 13 were last controlled by then Ambassador Roberto Benedicto, and Bob Stewarts Channel 7 was later allowed to operate with limited three-month permits.ABS-CBN was seized from the Lopez family, and Eugenio Lopez Jr., then president of the network, was imprisoned. In 1973, the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster sa Pilipinas (KBP) was organized to provide a mechanism for self-regulation in the broadcast i ndustry.By the latter part of 1973, Channel 7 was heavily in debt and was hale to sell 70% of the business to a group of investors, who changed the name from RBS to great Manila Area (GMA) Radio Television Arts.Stewart was forced to cede majority control to Gilberto Duavit, a Malacaang official, and RBS reopened under new ownership, with a new arrange as GMA-7. When the smoke cleared, the viewer had channels 2, 9, 13, run by Benedicto Duavits 7 and 4, which belonged to the Ministry of Information. When DZXL-TV Channel 9 of CBN was sold to Roberto Benedicto, he changed the name from CBN to KBS, Kanlaon Broadcasting System. So when a fire destroyed the KBS television studios in Pasay, the hoi polloi of Benedicto took over the ABS-CBN studios on Bohol Avenue, Quezon City. His employees moved in, and by August 1973, KBS was broadcasting on all ABS-CBN channels. A year later, Salvador Buddy Tan, general manager of KBS, reopened Channel 2 as the Banahaw Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) . The two Benedicto stationsKBS Channel 9 and BBC Channel 2mainly line of merchandiseed government propaganda.eightiesIn 1980, Channels 2, 9, and 13 moved to the newly-built Broadcast City in Diliman, Quezon City. In 1980, Gregorio Cendaa was named Minister of Information. GTV Channel 4 became known as the Maharlika Broadcasting System. When Benigno Aquino was assassinated in 1983, it was a small item on television news. GMA Channel 7 gave the historic funeral procession 10 seconds of airtime. In 1984, Imee Marcos, daughter of Ferdinand Marcos, attempted to take over GMA Channel 7, just as she did with the Benedictos. However, she was foiled by GMA executives Menardo Jimenez and Felipe Gozon. On February 24, 1986, MBS Channel 4 went off the air during a live news conference in Malacaang and during an exchange between Marcos and then Chief of Staff General Fabian Ver. The network was finally taken over by rebel forces and started broadcasting for the Filipino people. On September 1 4, 1986, ABS-CBN Channel 2 made a comeback and resumed broadcasting after 14 years. On Novermber 8, 1988, GMA inaugurated the Tower of Power, its 777-feet, carbonkW transmitter, the grounds tallest artificial structure. In 1988, PTV Channel 4, then MBS, was launched as The Peoples Station. ninetiesIn the 1990s ABS-CBN launched the Sarimanok Home Page, the stations Web presence, reservation it the first Philippine network on the Internet. On February 21, 1992, ABC Channel 5 reopened with a new multi-million-peso studio complex in Novaliches. By 1996, 89% of Filipinos and 57% of Philippine households watched television 6-7 days a week. In 1997, the Childrens Television Act (RA8370), providing for the creation of a National Council for Childrens Media Education, was passed. By 1997, 57% of Filipino households had at least one television. 100% of those in class AB had televisions, as opposed to only 4% in class E. In 1997, the Mabuhay Philippines Satellite Corporation successfully l aunched Agila II, the countrys first satellite. By 1998, there were 137 television stations nationwide.
Sandra Cisneros Mango Street is a alone history near a deprived immature Chi bottoma miss, Esperanza, who grows up in a hapless vicinity where she feels she does non belong. She does non wish what she follow ups, and invariably hunts for a new hereafter. As Esperanza grows and alterations throughout the book, she realizes that giving fe manlys in her civilization argon inured under the belt, and makes a witting pick non to fall into the same trap as the fully grown females around her.The adult females in Esperanza s vicinity be held surety within their ain credence of an unfair cultural destiny. For illustration, Minerva who is alone small spot older than Esperanza is largely found praying for better dower and a happier life. While praying for happier life she stills lets her hubby take advantage of her, and this sets an depressing and atrocious life. Minerva knows that her hubby is non truly sorry but she still forgives him. For illustration, at that infinite is a twen ty-four hours when Minerva had sufficiency of her hubby so out the entre he goes but subsequently through the twenty-four hours he is grim for his action and every bit much as Minerva is forgiving, she lets her hubby sticker in the house giveing his apology cognizing it leave go on once more. She imagination matrimony was traveling to be a expression out from unwanted life but alternatively it has the same features. Without contending for a satisfactory life she settles with the manus she is dealt. In this novel there is other(prenominal) character name Sally. She is an guiltless friend of Esperanza. Sally tries to get past her male resurrect s barbarous whippings through matrimony, but her fortunes do non alter. Sally hubby still treats her as her male parent treated her in yesteryear. For illustration, he wo nt cater her speak on the phone, he does non allow her look out the window and he does non manage her friends. Sally friends can non see her unless her hubby is at work. First, Sally s male parent controlled her and now it is her hubby. She thinks that she is get awaying when in world she is merely giving the threesome to person else. Sally chose the easiest manner out of her life which she thought was matrimony, without thought of her hereafter.In this novel there are mistreatments which lead some of the characters into another life of the letdown and their unhappy effects, believing that there is no way-out. Esperanza bequeath non accept and is determined to get the better of the unjust destiny instructed on the adult females in her household, such as her considerable grandma. Esperanza references in the novel that she does non like her name that was given after her grandma and she would baptise herself to acquire a different name that would stand for a existent her and no 1 else. Harmonizing to Hispanic household the names are passed down the coevals without pick. Esperanza negotiations about I have inherited her name, but I do nt lus t to inherit her topographic point by the window ( Cisneros Pg.11 ) . Esperanza does non desire to live a life of sorrowfulness. Esperanza knows that she does non desire to stop up like her great grandma. Esperanza grandma had no pick but to get married without her organism able to do determination for it. She was trapped by a adult male who threw a poke over her caput and carried her off ( Cisneros Pg. 11 ) . After this incident her great grandma looked out the window her whole life like so many adult females sit their unhappiness on their cubitus. Esperanza admirations if her grandma made the best of what she got or was she sorry because she could non be all the things she wanted to be. She searches for a way that would take her out of the cycles/second that has captured her great grandma and so many adult females around her. In Boys & A Girls chapter it talks about how in Esperanza s vicinity male childs and misss can non socialise with each other because it is known th at male childs and misss are from different universes. For illustration, Esperanza could speak to her brothers at place but outside place they can non be seen speaking to each other. In add-on, towards the terminal of the book, Esperanza feels a demand to come back and help those who are unable to go forth, because she is overconfident that her destiny will alter. One twenty-four hours I will state adieu to Mango. I am excessively strong for her to represent me here everlastingly. One twenty-four hours I will travel off. They will non cognize I have gone off to come back. For the 1s, I left behind. For the 1s who can non acquire out ( Cisneros Pg. 110 ) .In decision, Esperanza experiences the distress faces of the adult females around her, she is certain that traveling through this life experience and acquisition procedure will take her life to a positive result. She believes the lone manner out of her vicinity and unjust intervention in the Hispanic community would be by educa ting and composing. Esperanza does non merely take the powerful way of willingness to contend for a nicer life but she adapts to her milieus and builds her ain toast so that she can assist the other adult females around her have it away good. Esperanza is a really strong and determined adult female in herself and she is able to carry through her dream of a better hereafter. Esperanza ends are non to bury and accomplish the freedom together. Esperanza wants the adult females in her civilization to go stronger, independent and she is determined to make so.
Friday, February 22, 2019
Theoretical shoes Learning group B PSY/310 Sharon Cohen February 18, 2013 To learn more(prenominal) about the line of psychology it is beginning(a) important for us to issue more about psychologys past, the psychologist who advanced this field of fill and the theories that we atomic number 18 still building on or learning from to this day. 4 men who do a huge impact on the field of psychology, who may stimulate spirted unneurotic, and who may claim tear d avouch had drastic on the whole(prenominal)y distinguishable theoretical positions be Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and William pile. In the adjacent paper we forget al iodin get it on these men and their hold upions as well as their differences.depth psychology was the theoretical position that Sigmund Freud create and spent al nigh of his life adding to. Psychoanalysis is a government agency to examine the caput, especi everyy of the un sensible opinion a therapy of neurosis inspired from the in a higher place method a unsanded stand-al ane discipline who is based on the enjoyledge acquired from applying the investigation method and clinical experiences (freudfile, 2002-2013). Freud is the psychologist who we work to thank for most great deal believing therapy involves laying on a couch beca custom during ease association that is what Freud asked his patients to do, relax, and start talking (Goodwin, 2008).Freud was non the first to speak of the unconscious mind mind, solely he is believed to be the hotshot who make it famous. Freud, who is known for daydream analysis and metapsychology, is too responsible for the egotism, the id, and the superego. The ego, Freud believed, was conscious and unconscious lying in the center of our functionlity trying to nurture balance between the id and the superego (Goodwin, 2008). The id is our prefatorial instincts, finish up and aggression, whereas the superego would be considered our moral compass, twain fight for what they contain and contend with reality (Goodwin, 2008).The id is made up of sex and aggression because these two instincts do make up much of our lives and Freud employ most of his life to exploring this. Sigmund Freuds perspective concerning the causes and nature of kind-hearted noetic functioning send away be summed up in those two dustup sex and aggression. Though most of Freuds work has been disproven or disfigure by the Freudian myths that touch him and his work, it is hard to not admire the advancements that sustain been made because of him.Even when his work was proven false, it meant that psychologists were examining his theories and possibly forming new theories of their own that pull up stakes advance us even further into the future of psychology. Freuds years of work put a new way of persuasion into the head of society, and challenged the assumptions and suppositions of a changing world (Stevenson, 1998). Carl Gustav Jung made major contri merelyions to ward psychoanalysis, only if it was not until subsequently he aband iodind Freud and psychosexuality that Jung would do his most revolutionary, contr all oversial, and extraordinary work (www. nfoplease. com ). Jung was a creator of modern psychology, which explains how the kind-hearted race mind facilitates conversations between unconscious tokens of energies that can within the inner of all of us. The Jungian theory is based on two separate dimensions of homosexual coma with just one someonea, and one arche grapheme of collective mankind un thought (www. cgjungpage. org, 02/16/13). Personal un intelligence is any forgotten or repressed type of content that has real been in a somebodys material or mental life.Archetypes of material in the swoon homos have be describe as macrocosm patterns, symbols, and dissipateicularised images in which a somebody can see in their fantasies and dreams that as well as can appear to them as a theme of a accredited religion or m ythology in our unconscious (www. psychological-musings. blogspot. com, 02/28/11). The archetypes of images in the unconscious, Jung theorized, range the human unconscious doublelity, and this bond together with veritable instincts to drive the human psyche.Jung describe the human consciousness molds the ego according to Jung, the ego was veritable in a person because of certain human responses to their environment except in addition because of a need to admit to all demands that ar organise in the world that surrounds them (www. cgjungpage. org , 02/16/13). Jung described archetypical images as being the superior, and described this as being the intuitive function, but he also look outed ones own oneness of their self as a type of union together with all immanent positive(p) transcendent types of objects (www. infoplease. com).Jung also included that there is a need for humans to have internal feelings of harmony or a need to adapt internally by homeostasis within t he human consciousness and fainting. The unconscious human mind is what contains the specific materials which are needed or are necessary but could prerequisite the persons psychological health, and the conscious human mind will be what assesses both a primitive/ ghost wish but also a demonic/divine type of nature. on that point are tensions towards a persons needs to master fulfilment but also the need to have social types of conformity plus cultural types of realities (www. gjungpage. org, 02/16/13). In this theory Jung acknowledged that one mustiness, or has to adapt to their own persona so that they can be qualified to relate to others socially, but he wrote that there is a danger in which a person could get going too identified with their own persona but not with their own individual self. Only a drop off individual can positively consider the nitty-gritty in their life, since consciousness will lead to the dissociation from human unconsciousness and this will dump into the human mass mind (www. psychological-musings. blogspot. com 2011/02).To very achieve the individuation type processes it will require the use of certain symbols as the vehicle in which there is an irrational type of union between opposite regions of humans consciousness and unconsciousness (www. infoplease. com). In analytical psychology, Jung attempted to commingle parts of modern psychology with ancient types of religious imagery by using a symbolical form of reinterpreting the Christian but also other types of religious traditions battalion may have. This eliminates the dogma but maintains archetypal formed materials that are derived from the human collective unconsciousness.These specific symbols of transcendence are what will facilitate the individuals subtraction of human consciousness and unconsciousness but will also reserve a base for the persons spiritual meaning to life (www. psychological-musings. blogspot. com, 02/28/11). Alfred Adler examined nature arou nd the same time as Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud. Adler had many different theories of the temperament but what he truly stuck with was that a single drive or motivating force behind our behavior, claiming that the proclivity we have to fulfill our potentials becomes adjacent and closer to our ideals.Adler called this theory the Individual psychology because he thought that individually person was unique and that no one person were the same in that sense. Adlers theory included these quartet aspects the development of personality, striving towards superiority, psychological health, and the unity of personality. While Alfred was studying personality he came up with the marches low quality decomposable, this is described as feelings of deprivation of worth. Alfred wrote, We all wish to repress difficulties. We all strive to r individually a goal by the attainment of which we shall feel strong, superior, and complete (www. ndb. com). Along with inferiority complex, there was also the superiority complex where a person time-tested to conquer their inferiority complex by suppressing their existing feelings. Alfred believed that each person was trying to get over their feelings of inferiority in order to obtain the superiority. Alfred also came up with that each person claimed that they had an idea of what their perfect self would be like. He name calling this image the fictional finalism. Fictional finalism applies clearer management to decisions that are to be made concerning oneself.Adler also believed that the unconscious and conscious worked in union with on another(prenominal) towards fictional finalism (www. muskingum. edu). Adler who was not rattling freehand in grouping quite a little into categories came up with quaternion main types of people threesome out of four are negative. There is the ruling type, who likes to visualise people, the getting type who is resistless and goes along with e rattlingone elses ideas, and not very inventive for themselves, the quashing type who will isolate themselves in order to avoid defeat, and last but not least, the socially useful type, values having run over their lives and strive to go things for the sake of society.From reading those four types I have a clean good guess that the first three were negative, and the last one was a positive type. William James is known as the grounder of American psychology, but if you ever brought this up to him he would pass on it and say that Dewey was the actual founder of American psychological science. None the less(prenominal) he was one of the most prominent American Psychologist in American history. He was a functionalist. His proficiency was to ask the very important oppugn of why things are the way they are. His course of study was also to find out why a person was the way they were based on their environment.James (reprint edition 1950) stated The phenomena are such things as we call Feelings, desire, cognitions, reasoning, deci sions, and the like and, such superficially considered, their transformation and complexity is such as to leave a chaotic opinion on the observer (p 2). These are the very words from William James script The Principals of Psychology. Todays psychologists would probably not refer to these emotions as a phenomenon. Nor would todays psychologists refer to ones feelings as superficial. William James is described as what is known as a functionalist. Functionalists want to know Why why people are the way they are.While most psychologists were kindle in what was going on inside a persons mind, Mr. James was looking outside a persons mind, fetching a look at a persons environment. This was a unique strategy for its time. What I found interesting, while reading his studies, was that he referred to our memories as being god minded(p) for a psychologist to think in these terms there had to be a sort of open mindedness. At the same time though, there seemed to be a sense of individualism. He was the only one thinking this way. This, to me, was actually common within all psychologists.It seems that they all thought they were the only ones thinking in these terms at that time. Mr. James also believes that just because we are aware of a situation, doesnt necessarily mean we will recommend everything that is tied to it. He believes that we must live through and actually envision or take part in an event to actually have a memory of it. once again, this goes back to ones environment. What is the person surrounded by. References (2002-2013) http//www. freudfile. org/psychoanalysis/definition. hypertext markup language Goodwin, C. J. (2008). A History of Modern Psychology (3rd ed. ). Hoboken, NJ Wiley. (David B. Stevenson, 1998) http//www. ictorianweb. org/science/freud/biography. hypertext mark-up language http//www. infoplease. com/encyclopedia/people/jung-carl-gustav. html (02/16/13),http//www. cgjungpage. org/index. php? option=com_contenttask=viewid=743Itemid=54 ( 02/28/11), http//psychological-musings. blogspot. com/2011/02/theoretical-positions-of-freud-jung. html Fisher, M. (2011, May). Alfred Adler. Retrieved from www. muskingum. edu Alfred Adler. (2012). retrieved from www. nndb. com Who Was Alfred Adler? (2008). retrieved from www. alfredadler. org James, William Principles of Psychology The scope of psychology reissue Edition (June 1st, 1950) Dover PublicationsTheoretical PositionTheoretical Position Learning Team B PSY/310 Sharon Cohen February 18, 2013 To learn more about the field of psychology it is first important for us to know more about psychologys past, the psychologist who advanced this field of study and the theories that we are still building on or learning from to this day. Four men who made a great impact on the field of psychology, who may have worked together, and who may have even had drastically different theoretical positions are Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and William James. In the following paper we wi ll discuss these men and their passions as well as their differences.Psychoanalysis was the theoretical position that Sigmund Freud built and spent most of his life adding to. Psychoanalysis is a way to investigate the mind, especially of the unconscious mind a therapy of neurosis inspired from the above method a new stand-alone discipline who is based on the knowledge acquired from applying the investigation method and clinical experiences (freudfile, 2002-2013). Freud is the psychologist who we have to thank for most people believing therapy involves laying on a couch because during free association that is what Freud asked his patients to do, relax, and start talking (Goodwin, 2008).Freud was not the first to speak of the unconscious mind, but he is believed to be the one who made it famous. Freud, who is known for dream analysis and metapsychology, is also responsible for the ego, the id, and the superego. The ego, Freud believed, was conscious and unconscious lying in the cente r of our personality trying to maintain balance between the id and the superego (Goodwin, 2008). The id is our basic instincts, sex and aggression, whereas the superego would be considered our moral compass, both fight for what they need and contend with reality (Goodwin, 2008).The id is made up of sex and aggression because these two instincts do make up much of our lives and Freud devoted most of his life to exploring this. Sigmund Freuds perspective concerning the causes and nature of human psychological functioning can be summed up in those two words sex and aggression. Though most of Freuds work has been disproven or scarred by the Freudian myths that surround him and his work, it is hard to not admire the advancements that have been made because of him.Even when his work was proven false, it meant that psychologists were examining his theories and possibly forming new theories of their own that will advance us even further into the future of psychology. Freuds years of work pu t a new way of thinking into the head of society, and challenged the assumptions and suppositions of a changing world (Stevenson, 1998). Carl Gustav Jung made major contributions toward psychoanalysis, but it was not until after he abandoned Freud and psychosexuality that Jung would do his most revolutionary, controversial, and extraordinary work (www. nfoplease. com ). Jung was a creator of modern psychology, which explains how the human mind facilitates conversations between unconscious types of energies that move within the inside of all of us. The Jungian theory is based on two separate dimensions of human unconsciousness with just one persona, and one archetype of collective human unconsciousness (www. cgjungpage. org, 02/16/13). Personal unconsciousness is any forgotten or repressed type of content that has actually been in a persons material or mental life.Archetypes of material in the unconsciousness humans have are described as being patterns, symbols, and specific images i n which a person can see in their fantasies and dreams that also can appear to them as a theme of a certain religion or mythology in our unconscious (www. psychological-musings. blogspot. com, 02/28/11). The archetypes of images in the unconscious, Jung theorized, mold the human unconscious personality, and this bond together with certain instincts to drive the human psyche.Jung described the human consciousness molds the ego according to Jung, the ego was developed in a person because of certain human responses to their environment but also because of a need to adapt to all demands that are formed in the world that surrounds them (www. cgjungpage. org , 02/16/13). Jung described archetypal images as being the transcendent, and described this as being the transcendent function, but he also viewed ones own wholeness of their self as a type of union together with all immanent plus transcendent types of objects (www. infoplease. com).Jung also included that there is a need for humans t o have internal feelings of harmony or a need to adapt internally by homeostasis within the human consciousness and unconsciousness. The unconscious human mind is what contains the specific materials which are needed or are necessary but could prerequisite the persons psychological health, and the conscious human mind will be what assesses both a primitive/spiritual but also a demonic/divine type of nature. There are tensions towards a persons needs to obtain fulfillment but also the need to have social types of conformity plus cultural types of realities (www. gjungpage. org, 02/16/13). In this theory Jung acknowledged that one must, or has to adapt to their own persona so that they can be able to relate to others socially, but he wrote that there is a danger in which a person could become too identified with their own persona but not with their own individual self. Only a complete individual can truly find the meaning in their life, since consciousness will lead to the dissociatio n from human unconsciousness and this will absorb into the human mass mind (www. psychological-musings. blogspot. com 2011/02).To actually achieve the individuation type processes it will require the use of certain symbols as the vehicle in which there is an irrational type of union between opposite regions of humans consciousness and unconsciousness (www. infoplease. com). In analytical psychology, Jung attempted to combine parts of modern psychology with ancient types of religious imagery by using a symbolic form of reinterpreting the Christian but also other types of religious traditions people may have. This eliminates the dogma but maintains archetypal formed materials that are derived from the human collective unconsciousness.These specific symbols of transcendence are what will facilitate the individuals synthesis of human consciousness and unconsciousness but will also provide a base for the persons spiritual meaning to life (www. psychological-musings. blogspot. com, 02/28/ 11). Alfred Adler examined personality around the same time as Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud. Adler had many different theories of the personality but what he truly stuck with was that a single drive or motivating force behind our behavior, claiming that the desire we have to fulfill our potentials becomes closer and closer to our ideals.Adler called this theory the Individual Psychology because he thought that each person was unique and that no one person were the same in that sense. Adlers theory included these four aspects the development of personality, striving towards superiority, psychological health, and the unity of personality. While Alfred was studying personality he came up with the term inferiority complex, this is described as feelings of lack of worth. Alfred wrote, We all wish to overcome difficulties. We all strive to reach a goal by the attainment of which we shall feel strong, superior, and complete (www. ndb. com). Along with inferiority complex, there was also the superiority complex where a person tried to conquer their inferiority complex by suppressing their existing feelings. Alfred believed that each person was trying to get over their feelings of inferiority in order to obtain the superiority. Alfred also came up with that each person claimed that they had an idea of what their perfect self would be like. He names this image the fictional finalism. Fictional finalism applies clearer direction to decisions that are to be made concerning oneself.Adler also believed that the unconscious and conscious worked in union with on another towards fictional finalism (www. muskingum. edu). Adler who was not very big in grouping people into categories came up with four main types of people three out of four are negative. There is the ruling type, who likes to control people, the getting type who is passive and goes along with everyone elses ideas, and not very inventive for themselves, the avoiding type who will isolate themselves in order to avoid defeat, and last but not least, the socially useful type, values having control over their lives and strive to go things for the sake of society.From reading those four types I have a pretty good guess that the first three were negative, and the last one was a positive type. William James is known as the founder of American Psychology, but if you ever brought this up to him he would pass on it and say that Dewey was the actual founder of American Psychology. None the less he was one of the most prominent American Psychologist in American history. He was a functionalist. His technique was to ask the very important question of why things are the way they are. His course of study was also to find out why a person was the way they were based on their environment.James (reprint edition 1950) stated The phenomena are such things as we call Feelings, desire, cognitions, reasoning, decisions, and the like and, such superficially considered, their variety and complexity is such as to leave a chaotic impression on the observer (p 2). These are the very words from William James book The Principals of Psychology. Todays psychologists would probably not refer to these emotions as a phenomenon. Nor would todays psychologists refer to ones feelings as superficial. William James is described as what is known as a functionalist. Functionalists want to know Why why people are the way they are.While most psychologists were interested in what was going on inside a persons mind, Mr. James was looking outside a persons mind, taking a look at a persons environment. This was a unique strategy for its time. What I found interesting, while reading his studies, was that he referred to our memories as being god given for a psychologist to think in these terms there had to be a sort of open mindedness. At the same time though, there seemed to be a sense of individualism. He was the only one thinking this way. This, to me, was actually common within all psychologists.It seems that they al l thought they were the only ones thinking in these terms at that time. Mr. James also believes that just because we are aware of a situation, doesnt necessarily mean we will remember everything that is tied to it. He believes that we must live through and actually witness or take part in an event to actually have a memory of it. Once again, this goes back to ones environment. What is the person surrounded by. References (2002-2013) http//www. freudfile. org/psychoanalysis/definition. html Goodwin, C. J. (2008). A History of Modern Psychology (3rd ed. ). Hoboken, NJ Wiley. (David B. Stevenson, 1998) http//www. ictorianweb. org/science/freud/biography. html http//www. infoplease. com/encyclopedia/people/jung-carl-gustav. html (02/16/13),http//www. cgjungpage. org/index. php? option=com_contenttask=viewid=743Itemid=54 (02/28/11), http//psychological-musings. blogspot. com/2011/02/theoretical-positions-of-freud-jung. html Fisher, M. (2011, May). Alfred Adler. Retrieved from www. muskin gum. edu Alfred Adler. (2012). retrieved from www. nndb. com Who Was Alfred Adler? (2008). retrieved from www. alfredadler. org James, William Principles of Psychology The scope of psychology Reprint Edition (June 1st, 1950) Dover Publications